The latest America’s Cup foiling cats are providing a wonderful spectacle as they scorch round the racecourse, but how did foiling start and what are the issues involved? Matthew Sheahan investigates
The history of hydrofoils
The early development of hydrofoils started over 100 years ago when Italian Enrico Forlanini achieved 36.9 knots with his 60hp airscrew-driven boat in 1906. Several engineers took notice, among them the Wright Brothers and Alexander Graham Bell, both of whom experimented with foilborne craft.
Within a few years speeds moved briskly into the 50-knot range for power boats, but it wasn’t until 1938 that a sailing boat got up onto foils with Americans Gilruth and Carl who managed to foil at five knots. Here are some key moments:
1869 – First patent for hydrofoil was for a rowing boat, French application made by Emmanuel Denis Fargot.
1906 – First hydrofoil boat designed and built by Enrico Forlanini. It had a ladder-type construction with multiple struts supporting multiple wings. It achieved 36.9 knots.
1918 – Alexander Graham Bell and Casey Baldwin launched their HD-4, a five-tonne vessel powered by two liberty aircraft engines of 350hp each and reached 52 knots. The HD-4 Hydrodrome later set a new world record of 61.58 knots.
1938 – First known sailing hydrofoil was produced by Americans R. Gilruth and Bill Carl.
1955 – Monitor clocked at 25 knots. She was designed by Gordon Baker and built by the Baker Manufacturing Company of Evansville, Wisconsin. The US Navy shared part of the cost of construction.
In October 1956 she was recorded at 30.4 knots and was later said to have sailed close to 40 knots.
1970 – The first hydrofoil cruiser. David Keiper’s Williwaw cruised throughout the South Pacific clocking up 20,000 miles.
1974 – Mayfly foiling cat established world record for A Class in Weymouth at 19.38 knots. In 1977 she set the bar higher at 23 knots.
1976 – Icarus, a modified foiling Tornado (above), set a new world record in B class at 20.70 knots. By 1985 Grogono and Fowler had raised their speed to 28.14 knots.
1980 – Eric Tabarly beat the schooner Atlantic’s transatlantic record by more than two days in offshore foiler Paul-Ricard.
1990 – Hobie Trifoiler, a twin-sail trimaran with a mainsail on each outrigger, capable of 30 knots, making it the fastest production sailboat in the world. The prototype, Longshot, was developed by Dan and Greg Ketterman with Russell Long.
1992 – Russell Long broke his own world records for the fourth time in the Trifoiler clocking 43.55 knots.
1994 – Alain Thébault’s L’Hydroptère foiling tri launched.
1997 – Techniques Avancées, a French foilborne proa, set a new world speed record in the D class, at 42.12 knots
2009 – L’Hydroptère set new outright world speed record over 500m 51.36knots.
2012 – Sailrocket II broke L’Hydroptère’s record to set new outright world record over 500m of 65.45knots.
2013 – America’s Cup sailed in foiling AC72s
This feature first appeared in Yachting World in April 2013 issue